Text and photos by O. Janson
In memory of my son Olof.
Ak 4 and Ak 5 - both made in Sweden.
After WW2, Sweden needed to renew the weapons for the army. Sweden had 692 000 old Mauser rifles of rifles m/1896, m/1938, m/1941 and carbine m/1894. The army was only equipped with these Mauser rifles, the Ljungman Ag 42b semi-automatic rifle, The Carl Gustaf submachine gun m/1945b and the light machine gun Kg m/1937.
Like all other countries Sweden wanted a modern assault rifle. Sweden although it was considered to be a Neutral country it preferred NATO dominated by USA.
The two dominant gun factories at that time was Carl Gustaf Stads gun factory (CG) and Husqvarna Vapenfabrik (HVA). CG had the upper hand.
Several developments of the old Ljungman semi-automatic rifle Ag m/1942b were made.
Here is the old Ljungman semi-automatic rifle Ag m/42B in Swedish 6.5x55 mm
Test rifle Ag m/42B rebuilt to 7.62x51 NATO. still with semi-fixed magazine.like the Ag m/42B above.
This is basically the same as the Ag m/42 in 7.62 mm but now a better interchangeable high capacity magazine has been added and a folding stock similar to the Swedish submachine gun m1945.
Eric Wallberg at Kungliga Armétygförvaltningen, Stockholm, made some interesting test weapons which were based on the old Ljungman rifle.
Here is the test rifle FM1957 by Eric Wallberg. Note the similarity. A folding stock, similar to the Submachine gun m/1945 and a removable 20 round magazine have been added.
Specifications FM 1957 WBG:
changes were made and the gun appeared in both 6,5x55 mm and 7,62x51 mm NATO
Swedish military wanted to change from 6.5x55 mm to the NATO standard: 7.62 x 51 mm NATO.
One British general who visited Sweden said: Why do you want to change from 6.5x55 mm to 7.62 NATO? The old Swedish 6.5x55 is much better and there is no need for you to change!
The sight was improved and you can see an new operating handle was used.
Assault rifle GRAM 63
Finally Carl Gustaf Stads gun factory came up with a construction by Nils Lundin which was called Gram.
AK fm/61 Gram
The sights were improved and the pistol grip was made more adopted to modern production and the trigger guard adjusted for the cold Swedish climate, to make it possible to shoot with gloves.
|Assault rifle GRAM 63
Specifications Gram 63B:
|It was this
Swedish designed CG Ak GRAM
63b which should be compared to several other assault rifles.
|US selctive fire US M14 in 7.62x51 mm (.308 NATO)
Finnish M60 made by Valmet based on AK47.
Although the Finnish AK47 type RK60 was very good it could due to political reasons not be accepted because it used the Russian M43 cartridge. Although it was never officially declared, Sweden considered the Soviet Union as the great threat. The discussion was whether the army should have the same cartridge like Soviet or a NATO cartridge.
|SIG M1957 7.62x51 Switzerland
The FN FAL trial example Called in Sweden AKFN
The FN FAL trial example called in Sweden AKFN and AK fm/1962 Like above but with flash hider.
The German assault rifle Heckler & Koch G3
|Swedish instruction how the mechanism on AK4 works with the rolls
Here is the receiver on one of the first three G3 rifles used for the very first evaluation by Sweden.
The final competition was a choice between three assault rifles
FN FAL AK fm/1962
Heckler & Koch G3
|These three weapons existed in both the old Swedish military round 6,5x55 mm and the NATO 7,62x51 mm. Sweden decided to accept the NATO standard.
The Swedish design Ak GRAM 63B failed because of economical reasons.
G3 and FAL fulfilled all the test. The FAL had a little edge to the G3 in most cases except for two points. The G3 was not worn out easily, but above all it was cheaper to build, due to new production techniques like stamped steel and plastic.
Sweden accepted the assault rifle Heckler & Koch G3 as AK 4 in 1964.
The production cost for one AK4 was 4000 SEK (about 430 Euro 1964).
The first accepted Swedish assault rifle AK 4 made in Sweden under license from Heckler & Koch (G3).
AK 4 from original production.
Detail of AK 4
Author shooting full auto with Ak 4 1972.
The Ak 4 was also issued in a sniper version although it is inferior to real sniping rifles.
|AK4B with Aimpoint sight and the old sights removed for the local home guard
Ak4 as Special purpose assault rifle
The latest issue of AK 4B with sight from Saab Bofors Dynamics
the Swedish Ak 5 (FN FNC)
1970 Sweden had a great demand for more assault rifles. Although the Ak 4
had been introduced and issued to military still about 70% of the army used
the old bolt rifles! The soldiers guns has during the last decades been
considered of minor importance. As an example can be mentioned that it would
have cost less to equip 700 000 soldier with Ak 4 than to buy one (1)
Swedish attack airplane Viggen.
Sweden decided to buy a new assault rifle in 5,56x45 mm NATO calibre.
Evaluations were made during the winter 1975-76 for tests in cold weather. The following guns took part
After test with all the weapons FFV 890C and FN FNC turned out to be the best. They were outstanding when it came to winter climate and long life.
|FNC with 4 position selector.
Full auto [A] / 3-shots  / one shot  and Safe [S]
The FFV 890C
|The FFV 890C was a slightly changed Israeli GALIL which also was based on the Russian AK47 but in the 5,6x45 mm calibre.
The IMI GALIL
On top AK5 and bottom FFV890C
FFV890 early production by Förenade
FabriksVerken Later CG Gun factory.
FFV890 produced by Förenade Fabriks
Verken Later CG Gun factory.
Military test were made with these two weapons 1979-1980 at Infantry regiment I11 in Vaxsjo.
Officially the FN FNC was better although the military who made the tests clearly stated that the Swedish FFV890C was superior, but the FN FNC was cheaper due to modern production techniques.
Now the FNC was modified and new tests were made 1981-1985. After a number of modifications FN FNC was finally accepted and delivered to the military as Ak5 1986.
The FNC has its roots with the FN FAL. 1967 FN FAL was made in 5,56x45 mm and called FN CAL. It was futher improved and became FNC.
The first Ak 5 were delivered directly from Belgium but very soon they became produced in Sweden by Bofors Carl Gustaf.
The weapon was improved significantly with new hammer, extractor, handguard, trigger guard, and the shoulder stock from FFV 890C. The magazines were improved. These magazines are interchangeable with M16.
Now the Swedish Ak 5 fulfils the highest demands of reliability and has maximum 1 jam per 25 000 shots fired.
The production cost for one Ak 5 was 3000 SEK (about 320 Euro).
|Ak 5 right side
|Ak 5 folded
|Ak 5 details of right side
|Ak 5 details of left side with stock folded.
|Ak 5B with red dot scope.
Ak 5B with Susat scope
Ak 5 with Susat scope and night vision
Ak 5 with 40 mm Colt grenade launcher.
AK5D, with short barrel, made by FMV, with sight from Saab Bofors Dynamics
can see my late son Olof
to the far right
Military at K3, Karlsborg
Colonel (retired) Axel Ekfeldt, Vapenmuseet i Eskilstuna
Arménytt, Swedish army magazine
Eldhandvapen, Per Arvidsson ISSN 91-87158-04-3
Automatkarbin 4 (Ak 4) M7742-101035 SoldR Mtrl Ak 4, Swedish Defence forces
Ian Hogg & John Weeks, Military small arms of the 20th century,
Special thanks to Buddy Hinton, USA